We have collected and compiled research about the benefits of, and strategies for overcoming the barriers to, U.S. citizenship.

Overcoming Barriers to Naturalization

Lifting Barriers to Citizenship


In January 2018, the Stanford Immigration Policy Lab (IPL) published new research on the financial barriers low-income immigrants face to becoming citizens. An innovative program, NaturalizeNY, developed in partnership with the New York State Office for New Americans and supported by Robin Hood and New York Community Trust, had a dramatic effect on naturalization rates among low-income New Yorkers: providing a fee voucher to cover the full cost of the application doubled the application rate.

The program offers a model for communities large and small that want to help immigrants to become citizens. For low-income immigrants (incomes between 150-300% of the federal poverty guidelines) who are not eligible for the full federal fee waiver, a fund could be established with public and private support to cover application fees. Read the research brief here, and see the infographic from IPL below. To learn more, visit the IPL’s webpage on the research here.


Reducing Barriers to Citizenship: New Research and the Need for a Partial Fee Waiver


On January 8, 2015, New Americans Campaign partners participated in a webinar that included research by Manuel Pastor and Jared Sanchez of the University of Southern California (USC) and Patrick Oakford of the Center for American Progress (CAP). This research shows that the number of low-income immigrants naturalizing is lagging that of immigrants with higher incomes, revealing how the cost of citizenship is a systemic barrier for some populations pursuing naturalization. Learn more about these important findings and how to address the high cost of citizenship for LPRs. A naturalization application fee increase, as well as a new reduced fee option, went into effect on December 23, 2016.

Research on Reducing Barriers to Citizenship 1-8-15 Webinar Powerpoint

Economic Impact of Naturalization

Several studies show that naturalization confers economic benefits, both on the individuals who become citizens, and on our communities and nation as a whole. A study published in December 2012 (Citizen Gain“) found that citizenship, alone, can boost individual earnings by 8 to 11 percent, leading to a potential $21-45 billion increase in cumulative earnings to the national economy over ten years.

Below is a list of resources on this subject.

Immigration and Growth (motion graphic)

Source: George W. Bush Center, July 2013

This motion graphic about immigration and growth spotlights the contributions immigrants make to our economy and our country. You can watch it below.

Why Naturalization Matters to the Economy (discussion panel)

Eric Cohen, Executive Director of Immigrant Legal Resource Center, the lead agency of the New Americans Campaign, participated in a panel during an event at the George W. Bush Presidential Center, Dallas, July 10, 2013. Other panelists were Ali Noorani (Executive Director, National Immigration Forum), Manuel Pastor (Professor, University of Southern California, Co-Director, Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration), and Richard Vedder (Distinguished Professor of Economics Emeritus, Ohio University).

Watch the video below.

Latino Financial Access and Inclusion in California (report)

Author: National Council of La Raza, June 2013

Summary: This report finds that Latinos in California, among other things, are more engaged financially and more likely to invest if they are naturalized citizens.

Homeownership Among the Foreign-Born Population (report)

Author: U.S. Census Bureau, Jan 2013

Summary: Using data from the 2011 American Community Survey (ACS), this report finds notable differences in homeownership rates among foreign-born households by citizenship status. While 66 percent of naturalized U.S. citizen households were owner occupied, 34 percent of noncitizen households were owner occupied. Naturalized U.S. citizen households were also more likely than non-citizen households to have paid off their home mortgage.

Click here for an infographic from George Washington University’s FaceTheFacts.USA.org project.

Citizen Gain (report)

Authors: Manuel Pastor and Justin Scoggins, USC Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration, December 2012

Summary: This report finds that citizenship, alone, can boost individual earnings by 8 to 11 percent, leading to a potential $21-45 billion increase in cumulative earnings over ten years that will have ripple effects on the national economy. It includes a 3-page summary brief, and an infographic.

Source: Citizen Gain 

The Economic Value of Citizenship for Immigrants in the United States (report)

Authors: Madeleine Sumption and Sarah Flamm, Migration Policy Institute, September 2012

Summary: This report states that naturalized citizens earn more than their noncitizen counterparts, and are less likely to be unemployed, and are better represented in highly skilled jobs. 

Source: Migration Policy Institute 

The Effects of Citizenship on Family Income and Poverty (report)

Author: Heidi Shierholz, Economic Policy Institute, February 2010

This 2010 report finds that immigrant workers who are U.S. citizens earn higher wages and experience lower levels of poverty than non-citizens, and that this benefit remains even after controlling for other factors.

Source: Economic Policy Institute

Immigrants Eligible for Naturalization

Detailed Data on the Naturalization-Eligible and Potential Future Voters in 2,332 Sub-state Areas

On November 3, 2015, the Center for Migration Studies of New York (CMS) published a paper in its Journal on Migration and Human Security with estimates of the US “eligible-to-naturalize” population.[1] It subsequently released two spreadsheets on the naturalization-eligible with state-level data on country of origin; languages spoken at home; ability to speak English; educational attainment; age; sex; period of entry; marital status; access to a computer or the internet; poverty status; median income and health insurance coverage.

Later, it released detailed estimates and characteristics of naturalization-eligible immigrants residing in 2,332 US sub-state regions; i.e., public use microdata areas (PUMAs) which cover geographic areas that contain at least 100,000 persons. PUMAs do not align with Congressional districts, but the estimates provide data on the naturalization-eligible in virtually every city and rural area in the United States.

CMS also put this data into an interactive map format.

Interactive Map: Eligible-To-Naturalize Populations in the U.S.

The University of Southern California’s Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration produced an interactive map, which presents their latest estimates of the size and region-of-origin composition of eligible-to-naturalize adults in the United States.